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Primary Topics

Subsidiary Topics with Links

Addresses of Elected Officials

Rosters of Members of Congress and State Legislators - Posted on Official Sites

Voter's Zip Code Lookup - Congress, State Legislators, and Candidates

Amending the U.S. Constitution

Schematic of Key Steps to Implement the U.S. Citizens' Initiatives Amendment

First Method - Congress Preempts Convention - Prodding Effect

Procedure for Calling an Article V Convention by the Second Method

Second Method - Article V Convention - Founding Fathers Anticipated Need

State Implementation Options - Using the Second Method

Two Methods Defined - in Article V for Processing an Amendment to the Constitution

Amendment and Boule Cost Estimates

Boule Cost Reference Point - Based on Actual 2004 Costs of B.C. Citizens' Assembly

Cost of Running Congress - Comparative Date for Cost of Running Boule

Cost of State Initiatives - Demanding Application for Amendment, Potentially in 24 States

Boule's Key Features

Ability of Boule to Adapt to Changing Requirements and Unforeseen Issues

Aristotle, Constitution of Athens [320 BC] trans. Thomas J. Dymes, 1891

Boule Charter - Rules Only the People' Initiatives can Change

Control of Boule - the People Control the Boule through its Charter

Deliberative Boule - Randomly Selected - Educated on Issues - Small Group Discussion

Deliberative Boule has Special Advantages - Widely Used over Last 25 Years

Extent of Direct Democracy - Number of Direct Initiatives that People can Assimilate

Grand Jury Analogy - 20 Times Larger - Decisions not Verdicts - Secrecy 2 to 5 Years

Improving Member Selection - Potential for Refining Selection Criteria Over Time

Limits of Boule's Capabilities - Ranks Proposed Initiatives - Does Not Create or Enact

Mandatory Duty May Sometimes be Imposition - Benefit Outweigh Inconvenience

Member Education and Demographics - Like Us v. Congress Rich White Male Lawyers

Member Skills - More than Adequate - Common Sense - Specialty Skills Contracted

Members' Duty - Like Grand Jury - Good Pay - Prestige and Achievement

Number of Boule Members - Average Size of a National Assemblies is 480

Ordinary Citizens Have the Skills to be Boule Members

Opening Rules - Keep Order - Boule Authority - Charter Approved by Initiatives

Sample Size - 480 Members Make Same Decisions as the People 95.5 Percent of Time

Some Argue a Boule Could Pass Laws Directly - Several Good Reason Against This

Starting Size 480 Members - Boule Can Fine-Tune Between 300 and 600 Members

State Representation - All States 100 Percent - Except Smallest with Over 80 Percent

Type of Organization - Boule Related to Existing Forms - Non Describe it Precisely

Typical Boule Facilities - 500 Seat Conference Room - 32 Breakout Rooms

Workforce Requirements - 480 Members - 1 Year Staggered Terms - 1 Week/Month

Background and Brief History of Initiatives

Brief History of Initiatives and Referendums in the U.S.

General Observations - Ancient Athens and Switzerland - Achieved Great Prosperity

How Democratic Was Athens? - Article by Professor Gerhard Rempel

Initiatives and Referendums in Ancient Times - Athenian 590 BC - Council of 500

Modern Democracies - Swiss Nationwide Initiatives Since 1891 - Most Have Referenda

States All Have Referenda - 24 States Have Initiatives

Boule Wisdom

Acknowledgments - Surowiecki "Wisdom of Crowds", Fishkin "Democracy and Deliberation"

Aggregation - Plenary Session Majority Vote and Deliberative Task Forces

Decentralization - Research and Advice from Many Sources, Secret Voting

Distrust of Crowd Leadership - Boule Does Not Act in Crises and Need Not be Creative

Diversity - Random-Sample Yields Maximum Diversity

Ensuring Boule is Wise - Independence, Diversity, Knowledge, Motivation, Secret Vote

Incentives - Financial Performance Incentives - Non-Financial Recognition of Effort

Independence - Private Information, Independent Opinions, Consensus Not Desired

Management - Boule Relatively Simple Organization, Adequate Management Capabilities

Proposing Initiatives is Not Appropriate for Boule - Requires Insight and Creativity

Where the Boule Excels - Groups are Best Deciding between Possible Solutions

Citizens for U.S. Direct Initiatives (CUSDI)

Communications - Mail Address - Web Sites - Email

Corporate Mission - Develop an Internet Blueprint to Enable a Direct Democracy Process

Donations - We Currently do Not Seek Donations

Incorporation - Nonprofit, Nonpartisan, Tax-Exempt Corporation Since 2004

Organization - Private U.S. Citizens Opposed to Excessive Special Interests Influence

Nonprofit Tax Status 501(c)(3) - Publicly Supported Organization

Congress Debates re Initiatives & Referenda

Hoekstra 1994 - Nationwide Initiative and Referendum on Reforming Congress

Koupal 1977 - Voter Initiative Constitutional Amendment Hearings

Ludlow Amendment 1938 - National Referendum to Declare War

Constitution References

Amendment I - Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression

Amendment X - Powers of the States and the People

Annapolis 1786 - Applying to Convene a Convention to Amend the Articles of Confederation

Article 1 Section 10 Clause 3 - Powers Prohibited of States

Article 1 Section 2 - Members of Congress to be Chosen by the People

Article 1 Section 8 Clause 18 - Necessary and Proper Clause ("Basket Clause")

Article IV - The States' Guarantee of Privileges and Immunities to All U.S. Citizens

Article V - The Constitutional Amendment Process - First and Second Methods

Article VII - Ratification of the U.S. Constitution & the Self-Enacting Precedent

Declaration of Independence - When Government is Destructive, the People May Alter It

Preamble - We the People…to Promote the General Welfare…Establish this Constitution

Constitutional Amendment Complete Text

Boule - People's Sworn Deputies - Random Cross-Section

Constitutional Authorization - Nationwide Initiatives - Boule

Constitution Excludes Direct Democracy - Written 100 Years Before Ancient Texts Found

Guarantee Clause Clarification - Ensures Initiatives Consistent with Republican Government

Guarantee Clause Neither Forbids nor Allows Direct Democracy - Constitution is Silent

Initiatives Defined - Have Power to Do All that Congress Does - Congress Cannot Overrule

Implementation Procedures - Government Shall Convene Boule Within 1 Year

Recall Not Included - Issue for Congressional District - Not for Nationwide Electorate

Referendums Not Included - Prepared by Government - Not Essential to Plan's Success

Repeal Safeguard - After 10 and 20 Years, People Vote on Initiative to Repeal Initiatives

State Ratification Process - Within 7 Years from Congressional Submission to the States

Veto of Initiatives Not Permitted - Veto Power Subject to Special Interest Influence

Direct Democracy in the U.S.

California Citizens' Assembly 2006 - State Constitutional Amendment

City Initiatives - in the 20 Largest U.S. Cities

Public Support for Initiatives - Polls and Surveys on Nationwide Initiatives

States with Initiatives - Direct Statute, Direct Constitutional, Indirect

States with Referenda but Without Initiatives - Legislative Amendments and Statutes

Downloads & Print

Executive Summary - Four Page PDF Brochure Suitable for Mailing or Handout

Amendment, Government Actions, Boule Rules Index - Amendment Attachments

State Support and State Referendum Bill - Materials for State Legislators

Federalist Paper References and Related Documents

Federalist #10 - Founding Fathers' View of the Maximum Size of a Democracy

Federalist #39 - Constitution is neither National nor Federal but a Composition of Both

Federalist #42 - State Citizenship Rights Conferred by the Constitution

Federalist #43 - Equality Between Amendments Originating in Congress or the States

Federalist #45 - Danger from the Powers of the Union to the State Governments

Federalist #49 - Guarding Against Federal Encroachments Through a Convention

Federalist #85 - Security the Constitution Affords to Republican Government

Gettysburg Address 1863 - Abraham Lincoln: Of the People, By the People, For the People

James Madison June 6, 1787 - Legislature Ought to be Exact Transcript of Whole Society

James Wilson 1790-1791 - All Power is in the People and Should be Exercised in Person

Quotations - Relevant to Direct Democracy - Well Known - Mostly by Revered Citizens

Government Actions Required by Amendment

Amendment Requires Governments to Establish First Boule within One Year

Boule Shall Remedy any Deficiencies in Convening the First Boule

Branches of Government and the States Shall Cooperate and Resolve Jurisdictional Issues

Congress Shall Enact Legislation to Support and Fund the First Boule

Governments Shall Protect and Defend the Boule

President's Executive Offices Responsible for Arrangements to Convene the First Boule

Implementation and Ratification of Nationwide Initiatives

State Referendum Bill - Preferred Option - Combines States and Peoples Authority

State Legislative Bill - Non-Binding or Binding - Start Amendment Process - Minimum Effort

State Citizens' Legislative or Constitutional Initiative - Expensive, Risks Special Interests

State Implementation Options Using the Second Method - Federal and State Obligations

State Lobbying and Voting Pressure - May be Needed to Move Plan Forward

Using the Second Method - Constitutionally, Congress has No Option to Deny

Legal Key Opinions, Decisions, and Debates

American Political Science Review 1920 - Argues State Referenda Can Ratify Amendment

Canady-Bliley 1998 - Congress Wishes Power to Veto State Application for a Convention

Clinton v City of New York 1998 - Line Item Veto by Act of Congress is Unconstitutional

Cooley - Ultimate Sovereignty is in the People, from whom Springs all Authority

CRS Report, Durbin, 1995 - Second Method Procedures for Amending the Constitution

Eikenberry 1983 - Convention Application by Initiative is Permitted in Washington State

Hawke v Smith 1920 - Constitutional Convention is Not Bound by State Referendum

Herbring v Brown 1919 - Ratification of Amendment is Not Bound by State Referendum

Maine Opinion of the Justices 1919 - Ratification of Amendment Not Referred to the People

Mullen v Howell 1919 - Ratification of Amendment Can be Bound by WA State Referendum

Philadelphia II v. Gregoire 1996 - It Is Not Within State Power to Enact Federal Law

PST&T v Oregon 1912 - U.S. Supreme Court Can Not Decide Constitutionality of Initiatives

Term Limits v Thornton 1995 - States Can Not Set Term Limits for their Congresspersons

Marketing this Amendment

Blogging as a Low-Key Marketing Tool - Initiatives Blog Example

Brief Guide to Successful Lobbying - Finding Committed Advocates in State Legislatures

Convince State Legislators - Heart of this Plan's Marketing Approach

Declaration of Intent - Extreme Option to Gain Representative Support

Download Handouts of Key Documents - Print or Display in B&W or Color

Generic State Bill for Legislative, Referendum, or Initiative Application to Congress

Grassroots Approach - Production Suggestions and Example of a Voter Email or Letter

Initial Focus - Through the States Using Article V's Second Method

Letters to Candidates - Does the Candidates Want to Make a Change?

Letters to Members of Congress - They are Unlikely to Support this Plan

Letters to State Legislators - Their Support is Critical to the Success of this Plan

Opponents are Powerful - Some Think Opponents Will Prevail - Overcoming Powers that Be

Principal Pro's and Con's of this Plan - Brief Statement of Arguments

Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer Download - Free

Slideshow - Microsoft PowerPoint - 40 Slides, 800KB - Customize to your Style

State Referendum Bill - the Preferred Option, Combining the Authority of People and States

State Support - Based on Constitutional and Moral Obligations upon Legislators

Summary - Plan is a Reference Explaining Why and How to Implement Nationwide Initiatives

Support and Opposition Constituencies - Anticipated for this Initiatives Amendment

Voter Demographics - Women and Minorities Represented in Boule, Not in Congress

Miscellaneous

Accessibility - Disabilities, Internet Access, Flesch-Kincaid Readability, Monitor Resolution

Alphabetical Index - Primary and Subsidiary Topics with Hyperlinks

Copyright Policy - Protected so States May Annex Plan - Fair Use OK - Permission Easy

Petition Redress of Grievances - But Government Has no Obligation to Listen or Respond

Purpose of Web Site - Plan of Feasible Solution for Profound Government Improvements

Return on Investment - Initiatives Very Cost Effective - Huge ROI

Search this Site - Use Google-enabled Search of this Plan

Table of Contents - At Web Page Level Not by Topic

Typical Proposed Initiative - Shows Format for Use by Initial Boule

National Initiative for Democracy

Management by an Electoral Trust - One Members Elected by Citizens of Each State

Method of Qualifying Initiatives - Popular Signature Petitions - Similar to State Systems

Ratification Process - Self-Enactment Based on Emergency Precedents of Founding Fathers

Scope - Initiatives for State and Local Governments in Addition to Federal Government

Problems in Congress Causing Need for this Amendment

American Dream Fading - Census Data: Men's Income 12% Lower than Fathers' Income

Congress Acts Against the People - on Key Social, Ethical, and Legal Issues

Congress Failed to Propose Term Limits - Ignoring States' and Peoples' Wishes

Apply Policies Harmful to the People - Export Jobs, Declining Real Income, Social Inequality

Campaign Financing - Special Interests Control Slate - Keep Out Good Candidates

Congress Unable to Solve the Problems - Checks and Balances Find Problems Intractable

Creates Hidden Unfunded Debt on Our Descendents - Average Family Share Over $100,000

Denies People their Right to Choose their Representatives - Wastes Most of Our Votes

Excessive Lobbying - 35,000 Registered Lobbyists - 65 Lobbyists per Congressperson

Fails Critical Long-Term Issues - Politicians' 4-Year Horizon v Huge Multi-Decade Problems

Gerrymandering - Redrawing Boundaries Makes Safe Seats - Only 13% Are Now Contested

Lobbyists Often Ex-congresspersons - 43% Departing Congresspersons Become Lobbyists

Massive Media Mergers Permitted - 1,000% Decline in 25 Years - 50 to 5 Corporations

Reelection Made Permanent - 98% Representatives and 80-90% Senators Reelected

Power of the Media - Create Virtual Campaign - Candidate Actors - Prompted Sound Bytes

Primary Cause of Problems - Powerful but Costly Media Dictates Huge Campaign Financing

Problems Seriously Harm the People - Looking Only at Money Costs - Over $350 Billion/Year

Seniority System - Based on Longevity Not Merit - Inherently Unrepresentative to Voters

Voice and Accountability Indicator - Global View of Congress Shows it Going Downhill Fast

Waste and Inefficiency - $231 Billion Lost to Government Waste and Pork Barrel Projects

Qualification of Initiatives

Detailed Alternatives - Signature Petitions v Boule Methods

General Alternatives - Includes Internet Voting System as Third Option

Internet Voting - E-voting May Become Feasible - Security and Integrity Untrustworthy

Popular Signature Petition - Special Interest Influence, Expensive, No Feedback, Overload

Randomly Selected Boule - Does Not Have Defects of Other Systems

Rules of Boule Part A - Charter - Only Changed by Direct Initiative

Authority to Propose or Change Initiatives - Administration - Revisions - Advertise

Avoidance of Tampering or Influence - Members' Reward for Conviction up to $50,000

Budget for Boule - $60 Million per Year After Startup Costs Paid

Boule Facilities - Comfort Without Extravagance - 200+ Miles from Washington

Classified Materials of the United States - Up to Member's U.S. Government Classification

Composition of Boule - Cross-section of Citizens Entitled to Vote - Staggered Terms

Confidentiality and Sunshine Provision - After 2 to 5 Years All Records Become Public

Congressional Right to Change or Overrule - Non Except if Specified in Initiative

Definitions - Full Complement - Whole Boule - Simple Majorities - Absolute Majorities

Direct Democracy Guidelines - Checks and Balances precede Policies precede Other Issues

Duration of Relationships - Avoid Long Commitments - Chairperson Changes Monthly

Excessive Hardship Excuse - Boule Defines Excessive Hardship to Federal Courts

External Communications - Monitor Written, Fax, Email, Digital, Verbal

Frequency and Notice of Initiatives - Included at Federal Elections Every Two Years

Incorporation as Nonprofit Corporation - If Boule Decides it is Necessary

Legal Review - for Constitutional and Legal Issues By Draft Candidate Status

Losses Borne by the Boule - None - Normal Members' Expenses Only

Maximum Number of Initiatives Per Citizen - Maximum of 1 per 2-Year Congress

Member Equality - All Members are Equals in the Boule

Member Independence - Members Vote Independent Opinions - Consensus Not Required

Members' Basic Job Description - Deputy of the People - Act in Their Best Interests

Method of Selection - Simple Random Sample - Stratified Random Sample - Audited

Minimum Requirements for Organizations - U.S. Owned and Controlled - in Good Standing

Minimum Size of Citizen Groups - 5 to 100 Citizens -  Boule Sets Optimum

Number of Indirect Initiatives Submitted to Congress - Maximum of 12 per 2-Year Congress

Number of Direct Initiatives on the Ballots - Maximum of 12 per 2-Year Congress

Quorum - One-half Plus One of the Full Complement of Members

Obligatory Initiatives from Congress per 2-Years - 1 Alternate Budget - 1 Repeal-or-Amend

Repair Deficiencies - Use Initiatives to Repair any Deficiencies Caused in its Creation

Philanthropic Funds - As Last Resort, Boule May Use Philanthropic Funds

Precedence of Rules - Initiative Rules above Supermajority Rules above Majority Rules

Proposed Initiative Submittal Fee - Range Zero to $20,000 to Help Control Influx

Protection - When Boule In Session - Members Minimum 2 Years, Maximum 5 Years

Reduced Boule Operations - Temporary Reduction When Not Enough Work

Remuneration - Member Receive $300 per Diem plus $50 into Incentive Bonus Pool

Requirements for New Members - Select from Best Database - Remove Those Unqualified

Rewards for Performance - Electorate Grades Boule That was Seated 4 Years Ago

Self-Education and Sources of Advice - Members Encouraged - Information Made Available

Size of Boule - Maximum 600, Minimum 300 Members - Boule Sets Optimum

Term of Service - Maximum 25 months, Minimum 12 months - Boule Sets Optimum

Types of Initiatives - Authors Stipulate - Direct, Indirect, or Advisory

United States Constitution - Supreme Authority Over Boule

Voting - Motions Passed in Plenary Session Govern the Boule

Rules of Boule Part B - Change by Supermajority Vote of Boule

Acronyms and Abbreviations - Boule - Boule - Initiative - DTF

Advisors and Consultants -  Selected by Boule - Maximum Term 160-Hours Per Year

Boule Membership Size - Initially 480 - Expert Advice on Optimal Size

Authority to Expend Funds - Requires Justification and Vote in Plenary Sessions

Content and Format of Candidate Initiatives - Boule Publishes Standards

Direct, Indirect and Advisory Initiatives - Uses Defined

Discipline - Moderator, Discipline Committee, Sergeant at Arms, Local Law Enforcement

Duration of Protection - Member and Family - Ends When Member's Contemporaries Leave

Duration of Service - 1st Month Training - 1 Year Service - About 1 Week/Month

Employment at Boule - Boule Has No employees - Except as Mandated Under Law

Excessive Hardship Excuses Defined - Guidelines for Federal Courts

Excuse from Service - Boule May Excuse Member - Avoid Duplication with Courts

Expedited Initiatives - from Congress, State Governors, State Legislatures

Method of Submitting Proposed Initiatives - By Publication

Minimum Size of Citizen Groups - Initially Set at 25 Citizens who are Eligible to Vote

Number of Proposed Initiatives Per Citizen - 1 Proposed Initiative Per 2-Year Congress

Oaths of Members and Other Persons - Copy of Oath to Membership Committee

Proposed Initiative Testimony and Advice - Contract for Services - Right of Subpoena

Publication of Initiatives and Feedback - Boule's Blanket Publication Negotiation

Readings of Candidate Initiatives - Double Approval - 2 Readings 3 Months Apart

Recording - All Meetings Recorded - Plenary Sessions on Video - Others Voice Only

Separate Facilities - Initially, Men and Women Separate - Spousal Reassurance

Statistical Method Used to Select Members - Initially, Simple Random Sample

Time Limit - Moderator Set Limits - Nominal Baseline Maximum 1 Minute per Day

Voting Methodology - After Deliberation Complete - No Straw Polls - No Vote Cascades

Voting Secrecy - All Votes Secret - Counts Retained - Tally by Machine - Hard Receipt

Rules of Boule Part C - Change by Majority Vote of Boule

Accessibility - Accessible by Wheelchair - ASL Translator - Recordings and Readers

Addressing the Boule - Moderator Recognizes Speaker - Points of Order

Advisory Initiatives - Test People Wishes - Find Common Ground - Complex Issues

Boule Facilities - Periodic Moves - Avoid Opportunities for Influence

Boule Sessions - Nominally 5 Consecutive Days - Start 8 am 2nd Monday Each Month

Communication Devices -Boule Devices Provided - Personal Devices Denied

Deliberative Task Force (DTF) - 15 Member Groups - Deliberate or Work on Assigned Topics

Disclosure by Ex-Members - Disclosure is Tampering Until Contemporaneous Members Leave

Election of a Moderator and Recording Secretary - Serve for Only 1 Month

Information Technology - Member Friendly - Standard - Accessible - Off-the Self Software

Initiative Opinions - Majority and Dissenting Opinions on Draft Candidate Initiatives

Initiative Selection Process - Elimination - Ranking System - Initial Rapid, Final Deliberate

Initiative Stages of Progress - Status of Initiatives Divided Into 8 Stages

Library Archive and Publication - Retention - Internet Releases - Personal Recognition

Medical Problems - Minor Problems Treated at Boule by Nurse

Member's Employment - Not Boule Employees - May Help Their Clients' Urgent Needs

Members’ Resignations in the First Year - One-twelfth of Original Members Resign Monthly

Motions - Required for Boule or Sub-Organization to Act

Multiple Choice Initiatives - May be Used Where No Simpler Option - Must be Easy to Use

Orientation and Training of New Members - Receive Course Before Being Seated

Permanent Committees - Members Appointed by Boule - Serve for 6 Months Maximum

Polls and Surveys - Use to Clarify Public Wishes - Determine Boule Performance

Proposed Initiative Content - Stand on Content Merit - Prefer Revision Over Duplication

Public Hearings - May be Assigned to Task Forces Reporting Back to Boule

Readability Indexes - Benefit from Full Range of Members' Abilities - Flesch-Kincaid

Rules of Order - Boule Rules Prevail - Then Robert's Rules of Order - Less Formal Option

Security - U.S. Government Security Officer - 24x7 Checkpoints and Barriers - Member IDs

Selection of New Members - Default: Social Security Database - Audit Data and Software

Selection of Publisher - Major National Newspaper - Blanket Agreement

Size of Citizen Group to Propose Initiative - Initial Minimum Size is 25

Support and Service Personnel - Competitive Procurement - Non-renewable 1-Year

Task Forces - Comprising Members Appointed by Boule for Specific Task

Time Limits - Limits on Presentations - Terminate Debate on Motion to Move Question

Time in Position of Authority - Members in Positions of Authority Max 6 Months Cumulative

Voter Education Materials - Boule Publishes Balanced Voter Materials - Pro and Con

Web Site Publication - Guidelines - News - Candidate Initiatives - Search - Feedback

Safeguards and Precautions

Absence of Corruption, Tampering, Media Interference, Improper Influence

Best Available Help and Expert Advise - Without Institutionalizing Sources

Competent Proposed Initiatives Involving of All the People - But Abuse is Penalized

Constitutional Protection and Federal Courts - Same Judicial Review as Congressional Laws

Control of Boule Workload - 7 Methods to Adjust Supply and Demand

Corruption or Tampering - More Protections than Grand Jury - Prevention Better than Cure

Double Approval of a Candidate Initiative - Two Readings Separated by 3 Months

Duty and Oath by Members - Member Represents Over 400,000 Voters - Hardship Excuse

Evolutionary not Revolutionary Process - Constitutionally Sound - Second Method

Feedback on Proposed Initiatives from Electorate -Public Debate Continues Almost a Year

Independence of Boule and Members - Separate from Government - Mirror the People

Informed Opinions Attached - Based on Best Advice - Perspective of the People

Internal Influence - Members Vote Un-coerced Opinion - Boule Permits No Associations

Media Interference - Members are Private Persons - Federal Court Gag Order

Nationwide Electorate Makes Final Decisions - Boule Selects - the People Decide

Outside Influence - Outside Contacts Must be Short-Term - Formal and Documented

Priority of Initiatives - Checks and Balances - Principals and Policies  - Other Issues

Protection of Minority and Majority Rights - Less Risk of Violation than in Congress

Repeal of Initiatives Rights Safeguard Clause - Graceful Exit Option is Prudent

Runaway Boule - Theoretically Possible - Less Likely than Runaway Congress

Safeguards Against a Tyrannous Initiative - 3 Sequential Protections

State Rights Protected - Double Majority Vote - States Granted Expedited Initiatives

Statistical Accuracy - Boule Reflects Peoples Wishes to ± 4% for 19 of 20 Initiatives

Wisdom of the Boule is Protected - 6 Ways to Maximize Wise Decisions

Solutions to Problems of Congress

Alternative Ways to Implement Initiatives - Senator Gravel's Plan - Article V Convention

Article V Convention - Congress Should have Called One Long Ago per FOAVC

Boule Evolution - Initiatives Make Significant Changes - Boule Makes Adjustments

Boule of Randomly Selected Citizens - Incorruptible - Select Best Initiatives

Boule is Very Cost Effectiveness at National Scale - Declines as Scale Gets Smaller

Congress Violates Rights - General Welfare and Choosing Representatives

Essential Elements of Initiatives Solutions - Propose Them - Qualify Them - Vote on Them

Implementing the Solution - Constitutional Amendment is Inevitable

Internet Voting System - Has Been Tried - Risk of Fraud is Still Excessive

Many Styles of Citizen Assembly - Clarification to Distinguish Between Them

National Initiative for Democracy - Possible but More Risks than this Plan's Approach

Objectives and Criteria for an Effective and Feasible Solution - Confirm It is Reasonable

Preconditions for Effective Solutions - Reduce Many Possible Solutions to Meaningful Few

Qualify Initiatives Effectively - Reduce Many Proposed Initiatives to Small Set on Ballot

Right to Propose Initiatives - U.S. Citizen Groups and U.S. Organizations

Right to Vote on Qualified Candidate Initiatives - Electorate at General Elections

Selection of the Best Method to Qualify Initiatives - 3 Methods Emerged as Leaders

Signature Petition System - Inappropriate for Qualifying U.S. Initiatives for 8 Reasons

Single Organization to Rank Initiatives so Voters Not Overwhelmed by too Many Initiatives

Special Interests Foiled by Not Utilizing Elected, Appointed or Hereditary Representatives

Substantive Solution Require an Amendment as only Authority Above Congress

Summary of Details of the Planned Solution - For the Readers' Convenience

State Legislators' Support for Amendment

All rightful governments—state and federal—derive their power by consent of the people

Avoiding Second Method Pitfalls - CRS Report - 8 Areas Requiring Care

Federal Power Structure - Its Excesses Reinforce Need for this Amendment

Federal Violation of People's State Rights - People's Well-being and Voting

Legislators' Responsibility - Oaths to Uphold Constitution - Including People's Rights

Line Item Veto - Unavailable at Federal Level - Exists in 86 Percent of States

Long Term Solution to Loopholes and End-runs - Presently, Congress is a Law unto Itself

Negative Experiences with State Initiatives Process - Mostly Relating to Special Interests

People's Reserved Rights - Powers not Delegated - Specifically Reserved in Some States

People's State Rights - Covenant Between People's Consent and State Protection of Rights

Political and Financial Risk - State Referendum Approach Tests Voters' Wishes

Political Party Leadership - Preservation of Status Quo - Rank-and-File Members are Voters

Practical State Benefits - Substantial from Supporting the Citizens' Initiatives Amendment

Pressure of Work, Procrastination and Apathy - But Problems Will Not Go Away

Leadership in Democracy - Cleaning Up at Home Helps to Improve U.S. Credibility

Public Interest Group Support - Huge Memberships Affect Legislators' Election

Single Comprehensive Solution - Better than Slow and Exhausting Single-issue Amendments

Special Interest Groups - Opposition is Inevitable - Reinforce Need for this Amendment

States' Inherent Ability to Innovate - Stimulate Growth - Change Direction Quickly

States' Inherent Efficiency - States Compete - Federal Government is a Monopoly

State Boule Concept - Useful to Larger States with Initiatives

State Constitution Extracts - Defines Relevant Rights in Each State

State Constitutions Mandate Require Legislators' Support - Bill or Declaration of Rights

State Governments Should Support this Amendment - a State Constitutional Obligation

State Leadership - Historic Performance - Women's Suffrage - Popular Election of Senators

State Legislator's Information Package with State Bill and U.S. Amendment (PDF)

State's Rights Protected - U.S. Initiatives Mirror Protection of U.S. Senate

State's Right to Alter Governments - By Direct Democracy in All States but Delaware

Term Limits - 23 States Passed Congressional Term Limits - Overturned by Supreme Court

Term Limits Blog - Preliminary Draft Examples of Proposed Initiatives

Unilaterally Mandated Federal Obligations - Forces Federal Tax Hidden within State Tax

Unreasonable Strings Tied to Federal Funds - Special Interests Enforce State Influence

U.S. Constitution Requires State Legislators' Support - Founding Fathers Foresaw Need

Wisconsin Applications for Federal Initiatives Constitutional Amendment - 1911

Wishes of the People for Nationwide Initiatives - Polls Show It Clearly

Summary of the Plan

Founding Fathers Built a Remedy into the U.S. Constitution - Anticipating Federal Excesses

Independent Boule must Manage Nationwide Initiatives Qualification

Influence over Congress by Special Interests is Excessive - Greatly Harming the People

Only the People can Protect Against Congressional Excesses and Deficiencies

Outline of the Operation of a Boule - Block Diagram Shows Relationships

Passing the Amendment will be Tough but It is Possible

States Should Annex This Plan and Improve It - When Several States Support It

Synopsis of Plan - Under 100 Words, 4 Sentences

U.S. and State Constitutions Rely on Every State to Limit Federal Government's Excesses

Technology for Boule and Initiative Process

Computer System Straightforward - Local Area Networks on Single Domain with Firewall

External Initiative Database - Access Open to Public

E-voting and Electoral Participation - Low Turnout on Initiatives Offset by Ease of Voting

Information Technologies and Automation - Some Principles for Simplicity

Internal Initiative Database - Access Restricted to Boule Members

Internet Web Site - Service Provider - 24x7 Service - Large Channel Capacity - Security

Off-the-Shelf SQL Database - Newspaper Provides Proposed Initiatives in Electronic Form

Online Democracy Expectations Managed to Avoid Multiplication of Risks and Overload

Single Platform Used - for Efficiency and Convenience of Boule and Members

Tyranny Risks in Boule by the Majority or by a Minority

Assessing the Risk of Tyranny - Considers Relative Risk

Composition of Boule - People More Fairly Represented in Boule than in Congress

Definition and Character of Tyranny - Tyranny is Antithesis of Liberty

Nationwide Electorate's Effect on Risk of Tyranny - Boule Provides Extra Protection

Risk of Tyranny by a Minority - Reduction - Less Risk in Boule than in Congress

Risk of Tyranny by the Majority - Reduction - Less Risk in Boule than in Congress

Tyrannous Initiative Prevention - Safeguards Against a Tyrannous Initiative

 

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Version 13.03
 November 07, 2013