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Declaration of Independence Annapolis 1786 Federalist No. 10 Federalist No. 39 Federalist No. 42 Federalist No. 43
Federalist No. 45 Federalist No. 49 Federalist No. 85 James Madison
June 6,
James Wilson
Gettysburg Address
Preamble Article I
Section 1
Article I
Section 2
Article I Section 3 Clause 6 Article I Section 8 Clause 18 Article I Section 10 Clause 3
Article IV Article V Article VII Amendment I Amendment X Extracts from State Constitutions
Ludlow 1938 Koupal 1977 Hoekstra 1994 Canady-Bliley 1998 PST&T v Oregon 1912 Cooley - People's Sovereignty
Wisconsin Application 1911 Apply by Initiative for Convention  Ratification by State Referenda Mullen v Howell 1919 Herbring v Brown 1919 Maine Opinion of the Justices 1919
Hawke v Smith 1920 Eisenhower  1961 Term Limits v Thornton 1995 Philadelphia II v. Gregoire 1996 Line Item Veto Clinton v NY 1998 CRS Report Durbin May, 1995
Cities with Initiatives States with Initiatives States with Referendums Public Support for Initiatives California Citizens' Assembly How Democratic Was Athens?
E-voting and Elections Contingency Initiative Estimate Reelection  Quotations Athenian Constitution  


Initiative Process in 20 Largest Cities


New York, NY   X  
Los Angeles, CA   X X
Chicago, IL      
Houston, TX   X X
Philadelphia, PA      
Phoenix, AZ   X X
San Diego, CA   X X
Dallas, TX   X X
San Antonio, TX   X X
Detroit, MI   X X
San Jose, CA   X X
Indianapolis, IN      
San Francisco, CA   X X
Jacksonville, FL   X  
Columbus, OH   X X
Austin, TX   X X
Baltimore, MD   X  
Memphis, TN      
Milwaukee, WI   X X
Boston, MA      


15 12
Source of Data:

Matsusaka: The Initiative and Referendum in American Cities: Basic Patterns

Waters: Initiative and Referendum Almanac

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Version 13.03
 November 07, 2013